Stun Gun Science


Learning Introduction

How A Stun Gun Works

Stun Gun Schematics

Beginner Level Circuit

Advanced Level Circuit

T1 Transformers

T2 Transformers

PreBuilt SG Transformers

Driver Oscillator Design

Xgen Guide Rules

Stun Gun Triggers

Buying Stun Gun Hardware

Battery Advice

Personal Designing

Email SGScience


So what is stun gun science and design all about:



One of the questions we must ask ourselves when designing stun gun systems is what is the purpose of a stun gun circuit design. Most people get this very wrong.


Most people’s first question always is:  What voltage is it !!! Wow that many volts !!!

Every time I lift my eyebrows and think oh my god here we go again !!!


It is not just about voltage. Voltage does play a role and a good role but voltage levels put on SG units to put it simply are outrageous lies !


Let me explain:


Lets take a so called 1 million volt SG.


Voltage is called in physics (potential difference). Another way to think of this is pushing force or pulling force.


How much potential difference does it take to make a spark jump over probe terminals with a gap of 1 mm. This is a relative fixed value in physics. Approximated 1000v to 2000v per mm through normal everyday air.


Lets just say then 1000v per mm


So for the 1 million volt stun gun to live up to the claim of 1 million volts the unit would have to give out a spark of (1 meter wide) Although I would love to see that I don’t know any stun gun that gives out a distance of 1 meter across and it kind of defeats the object of small and compact principle of a stun gun don’t you think.


So the claim of SG units extreme voltages is always simply put to fool the public into believing their unit is better than it is.


What ever next A billion volt, A trillion volt. A zillion volt!


In that case some of the component packs shown on this site are a gozillion volts then.


However voltage does have importance in stun gun design but all the voltage does really is determine the distance of the spark. All voltage does is makes electrons want to move from one point to another. If the voltage is high enough electrons will even move through thin air. (We call this a spark or an ark)


For a good stun gun we need a balance of volts and amps. (Both not just volts)


The higher we push voltage up the lower we push the amp level down. (This is important)


Amps or current is just as important as voltage. (We don’t want to push amps too low.)


Amps is the amount of electrons flowing from one point to another in our circuit.


Voltage just (attracts or pulls or pushes) them along.


So stun gun design is about balance of the two factors Amp level and volt level working together.


Amps determines the brightness and thickness of the spark.


Voltage determines how far the spark can travel.


Amps determines the damage factor of the spark !!!


Both a balance of volts and amps are needed to design an awesome stun gun with savage stopping power.


Sound and visual effects are incredibly effective and are just as important as the stopping power of the stun gun circuit.


Extreme high voltage with virtually no amps will travel through you without you even feeling it. For instance a Tesla coil is high volt low amps. No amps no damage.


However a balance of the two volts and amps will give you a huge jolt that you will not forget.


For instance a UK wall socket 240v 13A can easily kill you because the 13 Amps.

If we take the same 240v but lowered the amps to 0.000001 amp you would not even feel it.


The Main Problems With Learning Electronics




Electron Flow and Potential Difference:



Most of the symbols in electronics for components point in the wrong direction from the actual current flow direction. Why is this ?????


The reason for this is that in the early days of electronics they had no idea which way that electrons actually flowed through wires so they just guessed.


(Some genius thought this was great science)


Positive to negative.


We now know that this guess was totally wrong.


We now know that electrons actually flow from negative to positive. And this time it was proven to be true. It was not simply guess work.


Well when this reality of actual current flow direction was discovered the news of this then had to be spread throughout the whole scientific community.


You have to remember that the scientific community, these are people who are supposed to stand for finding the truth about how the world around us works. This is done by using science based on facts done by experimentation.


However there is a totally crazy part about this whole story.


When the scientific community found out about this they all nearly wet their pants.

As you can imagine they have thought all of these hundreds of thousands of people electronics theory who paid huge tuition fees in university's all over the world and what they taught them was all wrong. Everything will have to be changed and even us professors will have to even take our exams all over again.


What the hell are we going to do. !!!!!!

University’s panicking all over the world. What if they come back or sue us to get their tuition fees back.


So they did what every pompous sleaze snot nosed oxford graduate would do, let us call a committee meeting and debate the issue.


As you can imagine this was a huge decision that could have massive repercussions and could effect the whole advance of electronics in the future.


In the meeting politicians became involved and it came down to a simple decision:


Do we come clean and tell the truth and settle this matter or do we lie and sleaze our way out of the problem and leave others to suffer the mess we leave behind.



You can guess what they decided to do !!!!!!


They decided to solve the problem by splitting electronics theory in two saying it can be taught in both flow directions. Conventional current and Electron Flow.


This has had a devastating effect on beginners learning electronics ever since.


I personally believe that this was one of the biggest mistakes ever in scientific history to have done this. The reason being that for beginners who want to learn electronics it makes things so incredibly confusing.


Beginners are told when they start at school current does flow from negative to positive but we are going to teach you everything back to front.


This makes visualising very hard for beginners as they then have to imagine current flow positive to negative and negative to positive and it confuses everything when taking multi meter reading as well. Especially when learning on the internet with no instruction as some people teach current flow negative to positive and others teach positive to negative.


It is just simply a disaster and a complete mess.


This is when people just walk away and give up thinking it is not for them.


Now just imagine if bill gates when he started computers thought well it is not for me. It is to confusing !


What about Albert Einstein ! What would the world be like now if he just said well the subject is not for me. I don’t really like learning a subject that is taught totally back to front so it makes everything all confusing.   


Think of all of the people who have actually given up due to this confusion.


Quite a few of these people by now who could have very possibly been an Einstein to the world of electronics just gave up at the start because of this confusion in the way it is taught.


Some of these people who never even got started in electronics could have invented things that defy imagination but now we will never know.


Think of all of the ones who could have changed the world but didn't because of the laziness of the scientific community and the professors of the university's.


Algebraic Equations and Shorthand Symbols:



An extreme and really confusing unnecessary disaster in electronics is algebraic formula or algebraic shorthand symbols.


It is said that algebra and shorthand symbols are supposed to make things simpler so you can do calculations quicker but it makes life for the beginner just impossible.


You will have different symbols that have different meanings like V for voltage and I for current. These are not to bad but there are others that are very difficult especially when it is combined in an algebraic mathematical equation.


It is supposed to save time writing a formula but how long do you think it will take for a beginner to look up and memorise all the different shorthand symbols then learn algebra before they can even start to calculate a circuit.


Just to do one equation can take a beginner hours or days because of this anal way of doing things.


This is all due to elitist stubborn professors and pompous politicians and people who don't want things to ever change and move forward.

They want us to all be stuck back in the classical period of history and do things in ancient Greek.

This is truly insane I know! But it is the way things are.


These people listen to opera and talk about Mozart, Picasso and Modern Art and for some reason think this sets them apart from us simple commoners.


I mean we all really know what modern art really is. An utter load of shite a 3 year old child could draw however they pretend they can see something we can not because our brains are obviously not sophisticated enough.


I don’t know why they are like this but I just put it down to generations of inbreeding or something.


Science should move forward with the times and simplify science. Not be stuck in the past. People still stick to Albert Einstein’s principles like they are a religion even though he himself said that he has not totally solved the problem of combining the laws of physics. Don’t get me wrong Albert Einstein’s work was brilliant but it is not complete and the theory’s should always be open to debate and change so we can move forward.


The problem with the weston world is elite ism. Professors love thinking they are like gods and they think they are set apart from us mortals. Most think they are like rock stars of the university's.


Professors think that if they can do it and you cant it makes them elite. They believe it makes them better than you because they can do it and you cant. So most of them don't really want things to be easy for others to understand or learn.


You can see this clearly in university tuition videos on you tube.


It is an archaic and outdated method of formula that should have been put behind us long ago.


Science is one of the things that separate us from prehistoric man. It gives us a grasp and understanding of the world around us and how nature actually works and it should be open to us all not just the few.


It is the thing that has shot us in to the future from running round with bones in our noses with big clubs and big loops cut in to our ears. Well you still do get that now with some even now in the 21st century.


This algebraic formula or so called shorthand that seemed to help us at first has now stunted our growth so devastatingly. It has made science so complicated that virtually facing the challenge seems daunting to anyone who is interested in learning.


It is a bit like your mother teaching you to do your homework.

You think hey it will be easy right I’m eager to learn!

Then she just throws you a book written in formulaic equation and notation shorthand and says read that.

You would just sit there looking at her thinking what the hell woman ! Are you on drugs !


It sounds insane right !


Imagine when you were a little boy or girl your mother teaching you to ride your bike, she takes you outside and all of a sudden her language totally changes and she describes all her words back to front just like algebra and describes everything in shorthand.  Pedal = Px , Up > , Down < , Balance {} , Run >?


You would just sit there holding your head with your eyes popping out.


To the beginner algebraic equation is like a cipher code. It is like having to learn a symbol for every single word then do everything back to front just so you can calculate the simplest circuit.


To me this makes no sense that the whole system needs to be scrapped and a new basic 21st century system be put in its place.


With this system it has had its day. But if we want to move on a new simplistic system has to be put in its place.


NEW SYSTEM (That should be used !)


Calculation :


Like simple math : Voltage 98 / Current 6 + Resistance 0.77 - 4  = SIMPLE


Symbols : Totally scrapped


We will use more paper but so what hell we have computers now to write things down.


VERY EASY !!!!!!!!!!!!!!


Lets make it so simple even children can understand electronics.











This is probably the second biggest disaster in the history of not just electronics but science as a whole.


A massive put off for beginners or newcomers.


The algebraic shorthand system has virtually ground science to a halt in the 21st centaury.



People Who Make Things Impossible To Understand:




The one that really gets me the most is people who have a quite simple little concept or design and to explain it could be very simple and straight forward, but when they explain it “No” you would think they come from the planet ZOD, just to understand them you would need five degrees. Magnetic Flux, Flux density, Reluctance, Impedance, Leakage Inductance, Permeability, Hysteresis, Flux ratio’s, coercively, Magnetomotive Force, Impedance Ratio’s and combined with the algebraic equations can take forever to figure out.


Don’t get me wrong these are really important concepts but combined with algebraic equations can be a nightmare for a beginner.


You listen to these people for five minutes and it feels like you want to slip in to a coma.

You have to look up every single word and study it than study how to figure out the equation.


I think that some people just want to show how intellectually superior they are! and want to make understanding the subject for others as hard as humanly possible.


You will get people telling you this design is better or that design is better and that is fact.


In science there is no such thing as absolute certain fact.


The truth is the design that is the best is the one that works for you the best, the one with the best results that you can see right in front of you, the ones in your test results, no one else’s.


I’ve made big complicated designs but when I test them they are no better than the simplest designs. Always follow small circuit concepts that you understand and grow on them, add to them if it makes the circuit better.


Something that people really don’t need is Geoffrey Brainstorm throwing equations all over the screen trying to show how smart he is.


There are allot of people out there who ask questions as they are new to stun gun design and they get answers with massive long deep theory physics and equations.


It’s enough to put anyone off the subject of electronics for life.


This is a main reason for people avoiding electronics all together.


Basic electronics negative and positive charge, voltage and electron flow should not be taught through a mathematical basis at the start of the learning process.


This is complicated and insane. It is important but should come later !


People want to dip their toe into the water so to speak, they don’t want to be thrown in a scolding hot bath. It is a bit like someone who has never landed an aircraft before. You don’t throw them in the cockpit of Concorde with a mathematical handbook and say there you go mate.


Not everyone wants to get dredged under by mathematics and deep theory physics every time they want to expand their knowledge or understanding of electron flow. However this site will soon have sections for the Geoffrey Brainstorms.


It is very easy to get confused with all of the jargon used by most in the field of electronics. People can get so frustrated and really confused by others online when they are trying to find out about electronics especially the subject of SG’s. Some people can be so self righteous and interfering around this subject. Some people will lecture you on morality when you ask questions regarding SG’s.


Just make up your own mind what you think or decide is right or wrong for you to do in this world. That is what freedom is.



Laws and Morality:


Last of all and by far the worst of the lot, there are allot of people out there and online who have no mind or opinions of their own.

These people are the “Politically Correct” the “Self Righteous” sect within society who think it is their duty to tell everyone else what is morally right or wrong and what other people should or should not do.

These “Morally Superior” the “Do Gooder Sect within The Community” seem to take on the moral high ground when ever they get the chance to interfere in other peoples privacy.

This brainwashed sect seem to take on what ever the latest opinion of the majority of society is, or what ever the latest opinion on morning television seems to be at that time, and then it magically becomes their own opinion all of a sudden over night.

These kind of people believe that they have the right to tell everyone else what they are allowed to say and not allowed to say, and what other people are allowed to think and not allowed to think, and people who do not follow the same line of thought as themselves should then be persecuted or ridiculed or even be arrested or be arrested and then put in prison.

These largely brainwashed sect of people within society believe that this is called a democracy and what they call a free society when clearly this is not the truth.

These people have destroyed other peoples right to free speech and now are destroying other peoples right to have their own opinions.

These people will lecture you on your morality when you ask questions regarding stun gun design or anything to do with SG circuits. Avoid that sect of society at all costs.


There are many different laws around the world and I would not encourage anyone to break the law but I believe that we should have the right no matter what country around the world to study what ever subjects we wish.

I have encountered many people around the world online who disagree with anyone asking questions related to stun guns.

I never imagined that people could be so self righteous and interfering and so self absorbed with moral principles that they feel the need to preach and to tell others constantly what they should or should not choose to say, think or study.

I myself live in the UK where laws are strict regarding SG’s. The system over here is built on persecution and social engineering telling us what we are allowed to say and not allowed to say. Telling us what we are allowed to think and not allowed to think.

They have largely brainwashed most people in UK society to this insanity calling it moral values! And this is all based on a religion that virtually no one believes in anymore.

Most laws are based on this religion over here in the UK. How crazy is that !

Following a book that was written over 2000 years ago.

Laws based on a god that no one really even knows exists or not.

I can understand primitive man believing in such things but why should we all be forced to live by it.

If you don’t act as they want or think as they want or say the things that they want they have brainwashed society in to persecuting you and ridiculing you on their behalf.

People over here cant even speak their mind anymore, if they do they are branded a racist and arrested.

Every day people are loosing their jobs and livelihoods to foreign workers coming in to the country and if they say any thing about it they are then branded racists.

Most people here have to work 6 days a week just to pay the bills and have nothing left over for themselves.

When you have slaved for 6 days you get paid a few pieces of printed paper by the so called democratic governed monetary system. They tell you this printed paper has value !

Then instantly you are told you must pay your bills and taxes ! So you have to pay everything straight back to the system what only just paid you.

If you do try to save anything the system is purposely designed so it will take virtually everything back from you through tax, vat tax, income tax, fuel tax, road tax, business tax, premises tax, fuel duty tax, import tax, car licence tax, tv licence tax, car insurance, house insurance, the list goes on and on and on.

Simply through a number of different people or organisations they just take it straight back off you again and call it taxes you must pay.

So you end up working your whole life day after day with no end in sight. Day after day week after week getting paid and then paying it all back again and in the end you are still left with nothing.

If you do end up with something at the end of your life they come along with the biggest shocker tax of all (Inheritance Tax) where you have to pay half of everything you have to the government that paid you to keep you as a  slave in the first place.

This whole system is simply designed to keep you and your children and your children’s children as slaves.

I know if I did this to people I would be arrested for the worst case of modern day slavery ever in the UK and branded as one of the most evil people who ever lived in the UK for all time.

They give an illusion of freedom by letting you hold a few pieces of paper in your hand that they printed themselves and telling you that you can walk anywhere you want so long as you stay within the boundaries we have put up.

If you want a shelter above your head or a patch of land that you can call your own they tell you you have to pay them for it like the earth belongs to them.

They don’t have to put you in chains anymore because they know there is no where else you can go to escape.

There are so many laws it is virtually impossible to do anything. Poor people persecuted while the rich can do as they please. Huge tax breaks for big companies while the poor are hit hard and scraping to just survive. People don’t work to live anymore they seem to exist just to work without seeing anything for it just a roof over their heads. If this is not modern slavery I don’t know what is.

And they tell me this is freedom !!!

There is only one real freedom and it only exists in your own mind unless you let them take that away from you too. That is one thing they can not take away unless you let them.

I say study what you wish.

Intelligence and Unrestrained thought is all you have left in this world.






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Personal Designing

So you are still reading this site ! You have decided to learn the ways of the dark side. That is excellent news more new SG designers!


Some people end up here for the wrong reasons and some people end up here to learn and have some awesome fun with electronics.


Personal Note: I will be updating this page to include my personal designs and projects I am working on in future.


Everyone has problems in their life at one stage or another, I don’t recommend resorting to using weapons to settle your differences. Weapons just make most situations worse in the long run. If you have problems get yourself in to M.M.A and Karate to get yourself a decent stand up game, and Brazilian jujitsu to get a good base for your ground fighting game. Don’t take what you think will be the easy way out, using weapons or SG’s.