Stun Gun Science


Learning Introduction

How A Stun Gun Works

Stun Gun Schematics

Beginner Level Circuit

Advanced Level Circuit

T1 Transformers

T2 Transformers

PreBuilt SG Transformers

Driver Oscillator Design

Xgen Guide Rules

Stun Gun Triggers

Buying Stun Gun Hardware

Battery Advice

Personal Designing

Email SGScience


Stun Gun Battery Power

There are a number of different batteries on the market but it is essential to go for miniature size and high power. It is vital to save space and maximise power draw ability when designing a stun gun systems. This is why it is essential to have a good T1 that matches your pulse trigger transformer T2.

Ni-Cd cells I have certainly found to be the best for the beginner. They seem to give excellent continuous current and can be found in miniature version form called sub C cells.

Lipo cells are the best for the advanced level circuits however these must only be used by an advanced level user who knows all about lipos cells and their draw backs. If these are not used by an advanced level user who knows what he is doing they can explode or cause fire. These are not beginner friendly! Strict charging and drainage procedures must be followed carefully.

Lipos are certainly not recommended for the beginner or the beginner level circuits. If you are a beginner stay with a Ni-Cd battery pack. If you use an Xgen T1 a 9.6v Ni-Cd battery pack is more than sufficient to supply both beginner and advanced level SG circuits.

It is vital to have a rechargeable high power cell battery for stun gun system because if you don’t go with a rechargeable cell battery pack it will cost you a fortune in purchasing new battery's.

There is an alternate choice if you don’t want to go for rechargeable cells as mentioned by a tutorial by bones later in this section.

It is always best to charge cells with an intelligent charger but when you are starting out with Ni-Cd cells you don’t want to start throwing a quadzillion dollars around.

When getting started just start with a well known fully proven and tested impulse ignition circuit platform like the one included with the xgen beginner level component pack. Beginner mistakes and errors are the main reason for 80% of newcomers giving up and throwing the towel in so you want a circuit you know works and will not give you problems. Once you get a working platform it is easy to make changes and upgrade to a powerful circuit design.


Recommended basic beginner setup:

9v 3 Amp to 5 Amp Socket Adapter (For home testing)

9.6v Ni-Cd Battery Pack & Basic Ni-Cd Charger,

Xgen Beginner level Starter Component Pack.

Large bag of Crock Alligator Clips.

Breadboard Testing board,

Reasonable Multi meter that measures (Voltage / Amps / Capacitance / Resistance / Connection Test Beep)

Read Learning Page Introduction for advice. (Click Here)

SUB C Ni-Cd Batteries

These is a smaller version of the Ni-Cd battery cells above called Sub C cells.

They are harder to find these in a battery pack already made.

If you want to use this type of smaller Ni-Cd you will probably have to make your own pack by soldering them together.

These are small and very powerful cells.



If you don’t want to spend time making your own Ni-Cd battery packs then this is the recommended battery supply to get. Used inline with an Xgen T1 it gives excellent power draw ability.

It is just slightly larger than using Sub-C battery's connected together in a pack but it gives excellent power on the Xgen 9v impulse ignition component packs.

9.6V 1000mAh Ni-CD Rechargeable Battery Pack


Purchase Direct: http//


Recommended 9.6v Ni-Cd Battery Pack

9vpp Batteries

These are not as good as Ni-Cd cells but they can be used for SG design so long as your components are efficiently made.

Two of these joined together can supply enough power when using xgen transformers as their efficiency and power delivery is high.



Greetings fellow Enthusiasts


Let me introduce myself. I'm Bones MacGyver. I like to make sparks.


I'm going to do my best to help out the community with their battery woes.

By no means am I a battery expert. But I have used and abused MANY Ni-Cd cells (and other types) to

see what works best.

Interested? Read on…


I will try to make it as beginner friendly as possible without getting boring for the more advanced.

For the types of circuits discussed on this site, miniature battery size is a must. The most important

thing in my opinion is dependable batteries. (C'mon now, what good is a shot G*n with shells that are



I know a lot of you must have issues with batteries failing. Most of you probably use re-chargeable Ni-

Cd batteries. I know I DID use a lot myself.

Ni-Cd's are great for high drain devices that get used frequently. Ex: Cordless Drill

The MAH rating or Milliamp hour rating defines how long your battery can supply voltage to a load at

a determined number of Amps

Most Problems arise due to under-use or over charging.


Let me Explain:

You should charge a 9.6v 350Mah Ni-Cd battery pack (8 series connected 1.2v cells) At the

recommended current ( for the battery in this example we would charge it at max 0.03A or 30Ma for 14


It's best to charge Ni-Cd batteries at minimum current for a longer time period. This is because of the

chemical reactions taking place in the battery. After all, batteries are just containers that house a

chemical reaction. We know this method works well because Ni-Cd Technology is antique Literally.

If you store the Battery pack for too long without using it, the cells in the battery undergo a reverse

charging process and they can be damaged irreversibly

What happens is if you don't use the (Ni-Cd) batteries often, they develop what are called “whiskers”

by battery enthusiasts. These whiskers are really just a crystalline chemical deposit on the Anode of the

cell. The anode is marked with the + (positive) on the outside of the battery. The other half of the cell is

called the Cathode. The Cathode is marked – (negative). The anode and cathode are basically just two

dissimilar metals. There is also an electrolyte. The electrolyte is the medium that helps the chemical

magic take place (electricity).


One way you can store them safely is by using the “trickle charging” method. This would be a good

idea. Trickle charging involves constantly charging the cells at an extremely low rate. Small solar

panels are a good option. I'm not going in to details here. Think solar garden lights..


Some Ni-|Cd chargers are no good to say the least. They have no way to determine if your cells are

working correctly. The cheap ones are simply a rectified transformer that you plug in the wall. In my

opinion they are unsafe. If you must use this type of charger PLEASE use a plug-in Lamp type Timer

to limit the time the charger is turned on.


Most of you don't care about all the science behind how the battery works. If you are interested in

battery chemistry there are tons of sites online specifically dedicated to the subject.

These types of chargers gets my approval:

Alternate Approach Advice by Bones Macgyver

SGScience Article

I always liked Ni-Cd batteries. They are high power and lightweight

But in my head something kept saying to me “There must be something better”

With all the modern developments in battery technology like Lithium polymer, Lithium Ion, Lithium

Iron phosphate I knew one would “fit the bill” per say.

I thought to myself: “ What do the big boy's use”

You all know who I mean. The big fancy 5 letter word.

Ok one more hint: Your local LEO's and military probably have these devices to torture detainee's and

put your grandmother in her place when she “steps out of line”.

Wire and darts ring a bell?

Well the solution they have is simple and effective.

They power they're toys with non rechargeable 3V 123A Lithium Camera cells

2 cells are enough to power their devices...

Primary (non rechargeable) lithium 123 cells" have a voltage of 3.0-3.1V typically when they're fresh.

Theses cells are very dependable. They are lightweight and have a very high capacity to size ratio.

They can be stored for up to 10 years and still have 80% capacity

Some cells have a capacity of 2000 Milliamp hours(or more). That means you could draw 2000

milliamps (2 amps) for one hour OR 1 Milliamp for 2000 hours. That equals a lot of valuable run time

in a miniature package.

They are so tiny and powerful! They are the perfect batteries.

You can get small single battery holders online that work nicely

For testing purposes, I recommend getting some Rechargeable 123A cells

Never run them completely flat until the device stops working!!!

In fact, you should NEVER do this with ANY type of rechargeable batteries.

You can get cheap chargers that work great.

Only ever use a charger specifically for these batteries.

The chemistry is different so you must charge them accordingly. These types of rechargeable batteries

are finicky. They must be “smart charged” with special requirements. It's worth the extra trouble for

testing purposes. Don't rely on the rechargeable ones because they are not as dependable. The can't hold

a long term charge without being damaged,

So if you want to store some batteries in your circuit so you can demonstrate electrical discharges at a

moments notice..…


123A Lithium camera cells are VERY dependable. They are even stable in a wide variety of

temperature extremes!!

Look at what the modern high powered L.E.D. flashlights use. The military uses them in their

flashlight's as well as other devices because of their dependable nature and extreme awesomeness.


Paper written by: Bones MacGyver

April 2014

XRS Design systems is not related to the Sgscience Website

Recommended Direct Order Link

Battery cells are a hot topic in this day and age. New cells have come out with new approaches in design technology such as lipo cells.

Many people have different opinions on what cells are the best to use for stun gun design systems.

The more efficient your circuit components are designed the better your circuit will use and deliver power.

Recommended Battery Packs For

Beginners or Intermediate Users

If you don’t want to spend time making your own Ni-Cd battery packs then this is the recommended battery supply for advanced level users. It must be used with a good balance charger.

When used with an XGen T1 and T2 in an advanced level circuit design this supplies savage levels of power.

These are small compact and powerful but voltage regulation must be followed.



Recommended 7.4v Lipo Battery Pack

Recommended Chargers For

Advanced Level Users

This is the Imax B6 Balance Charger.

This is light weight and is very cheap and has easy to use functionality.



Recommended Charger